A refractive error is a type of vision problem that makes it hard for one to see clearly. They happen when light is not properly focused on the retina.
The refractive errors found in children are:
Myopia ( Near sightedness): Difficulty in seeing distant objects clearly
Hyperopia (Far Sightedness): Difficulty in seeing close objects clearly
Astigmatism: Distorted vision resulting from an irregularly curved cornea. It is possible to have astigmatism in combination with both myopia or hyperopia.
Refractive errors cannot be prevented but they can be diagnosed by an eye examination and treated with the appropriate lens prescription in form of glasses or contact lenses. It is important to detect and correct refractive errors early so that they do not impede the full development of good visual function in a child.